paradise lost because of temptation

Paradise Lost: Complete Synopsis Of All Books (I-XII)

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

John Milton’s “Paradise Lost” is a celebrated epic in English Literature. He transforms the Biblical account about the Fall of Man from Paradise into  rich, illustrious and timeless poetry. Paradise Lost: Book I [Invocation: Milton asks the muse to sing about man’s first disobedience, the Forbidden Fruit, his exile from paradise, his eventual redemption through […]

The Cook The Thief His Wife And Her Lover

The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover (1989): A Review

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews, Pubs

The Setting: Greenaway and the Tri-part Stage Peter Greenaway takes his camera through an adjacent tri-stage setup, the cold foggy outside, the warm vibrant kitchen and the richly decked up banquet hall. While the first one displays cruelty, abuse and bestiality shamelessly (fittingly complemented with a pack of hungry hounds and stench of rotten meat), […]

sonnet of wyatt, sidney and spenser

Elizabethan Sonneteers: Contribution of Wyatt, Sidney, and Spenser

Posted 1 CommentPosted in Hubs, Literature Notes

Sonnet: Its Origin and Development in England Sonnet (originating from the Italian “sonnetto”) refers to a short poem of fourteen lines with a special technical pattern. It originated in Italy in the master hands of Dante and Petrarch, although the latter’s influence was more potent on the subsequent sonneteers of different regions, including England. The […]


Nationalism in Nirad C. Chaudhuri’s “The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian”

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Article, Hubs

Nationalism: Contexts and Conditions Nationalism, as a politico-literary term, is etymologically connected to the word “nation”, which the Oxford Literary Dictionary defines as a homogenous space, culture, or religion. However, in Nirad C. Chaudhuri, such a definition appears to be expanded, modified, and transformed into something entirely different. Nationalism, for him, becomes not a constraint […]

sonnet 73

Analysing Sonnet 73: “That time of year thou mayst in me behold” by William Shakespeare

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Hubs, Literature Notes

Shakespeare’s Sonnet: Introduction Sonnets are invariably personal. Intense subjectivity is found to form a key character in sonnet writing. Regarding the personal character of Shakespeare’s sonnets, there is, no doubt, a host of controversies, yet their subjective notes are neither ignorable nor disputable. In some of them, Shakespeare’s personal moods and feelings are remarkably intense […]


O Henry’s Jimmy Valentine Rewritten as a Play

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Hubs, Prose & Verse

Jimmy Valentine: Drama Adaptation A Dramatic Rendering of the Short Story by O.Henry Dramatis Personae: Jimmy Valentine Alias Ralph D. Spencer , a notorious burglar Annabel Adams : Jimmy’s fiancé Mr Adams : Annabel’s father Annabel’s sister May: Annabel’s niece, aged nine Agatha: Annabel’s niece, aged five Ben Price, the detective Mike Dolan: Jimmy’s friend […]

Tagore: The living and the Dead

21st Century Indian Women Poets: An Introduction

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Article, Hubs, Literature Notes

Recovering Memory: In search of an Indian Feminine poetics with reference to the 21st century poetry The comparative study of women’s poetry reveals many patterns of similarity in thought, themes, metaphors, and diction. It also reveals profound contradictions between the image of the poet as the “transcendent speaker of a unified culture” (Kaplan 70) and […]


Five Memorable Speeches by Shakespeare’s Women

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Hubs, Literature Notes

William Shakespeare’s plays show remarkable portrayal of character when it comes to his women. It is often believed that his delineation of women characters surpass his portrayal of male characters. In both comedies and tragedies, Shakespeare’s women leave their mark through their action and speeches. Here are 5 of the most memorable speeches by Shakespeare’s […]

Implied author as a key to understand multiplicity of text

Implied Author: Its Meaning and Relevance in Literary Criticism

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

Implied Author: Wayne C Booth’s Unique Idea Wayne C Booth’s “The Rhetoric of Fiction” made a lasting impression on New Criticism’s efforts to make literary interpretation more “scientific” in its handling of the data one discovers in texts. Among the book’s important contributions was a distinction that Booth had made between narratives which come to […]

narrative voice

Narrative Voice: Interpretations and Critical Responses

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

Meaning of Narrative Voice Voice, in context of narrative, may be defined as the phantom projection of a variable identity that articulates the speaker’s projection of ‘self’. Narrative being a rhetoric of representation. Capable of semiotic articulation, voice can be seen from various perspectives. In narratology, the basic question concerning voice is “who speaks”. It […]

Village in The Guide

The Guide: Narayan’s use of Irony and Humour

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

Narayan’s Humour: An Integral Part of Narrative in The Guide R.K.Narayan’s conception of humour consists of close and realistic observation of life, precise juxtaposition of incongruities, deflation of illusions and, above all, sympathy rather than harsh satire. All these qualities are present in rich abundance in The Guide. “Humour writers”, says Narayan, ideally draw their […]

ironing board of alison

Alison in Osborne’s “Look Back in Anger”: A Critical Estimate

Posted 1 CommentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger explores and exposes the world of the 1950s, drowned in the visible darkness of post-war disillusionment. The despair and frustration, the anger and anxiety is articulated through the character of Jimmy Porter, the central character in the play. However, it is through the parallel presentation of his wife Alison […]

dover beach at night

Dover Beach: Arnold as a Victorian Poet

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

Nineteenth Century Hellenism, a romantic fascination for folk tales and legends, and a preference for solitary meditation in evocative surroundings render a distinctive note to Arnold’s poetry. “Dover Beach” is his attempt to meditate upon the redemptive elements in the laps of benevolent Nature. The description of the moon-blanch’d landscape in the opening lines suggest […]


Elizabeth in “Pride and Prejudice”: A Critical Evaluation

Posted 2 CommentsPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs, Uncategorized

Pride and Prejudice is brought vividly to life by a kaleidoscope of different and even contrasting characters, most of whom are identifiable from their speech patterns itself. Of course, not all characters are or need to be equally realized. The plot of Pride and Prejudice lies more in the psychological movements of the characters than […]

pilgrims on a wasteland

Enterprise: Some observations on Nissim Ezekiel’s Poem

Posted 5 CommentsPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

Nissim Ezekiel’s “Enterprise” is a powerful, multifaceted metaphor for a journey, an expedition, or a significant human enterprise, which a man dreams of, plans and concretizes but which ultimately ends in disillusionment. The poem becomes a testament of utopian ideas versus mundane matters of life woven into an apt metaphor of pilgrimage. From another perspective, […]

keats' odes

Keats’ Odes: Dominant Themes and Images in “Ode to a Nightingale”, “Ode on a Grecian Urn” and “To Autumn”

Posted 1 CommentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

The odes written by John Keats, on the level of superficial reading, may be seen as brilliant rendering of a scene, a season or a mood; the final perfection of English landscape poetry. His urge to establish such a balance is carried out through the trilogy of odes namely “Ode to Nightingale”, “Ode on a […]

Blake's concept of contraries

“Songs of Innocence” and “Songs of Experience”: Blake’s Concept of Contraries

Posted 6 CommentsPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

In his attempt to communicate his essential divine vision, William Blake created a poetic world where images are realized in their individual contexts and the contexts are realized in the unique Imagination of the poet. Blake’s philosophy asserts, more than anything else, the contrariety of systems with regard to human soul and other objects of […]

Loving in Truth by Sir Philip Sidney: A Critical Appreciation

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) Sir Philip Sidney, as a poet, is found opposed to all poetic conventions and affectations even when he adheres to the primary forms and generic qualities of contemporary English poetry. However, his sonnets are free from the artificiality of conventional poetic works and are distinctly sincere. As seen in his sonnet […]

Robert Browning’s “Porphyria’s Lover”: As a Dramatic Monologue

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

The poetry of Robert Browning exemplifies a dominant and perhaps the most original tendency of the Victorian times: the craving for analysis and moral criticism. It is a deep rooted intellectual curiosity which merges into a systematic quest of truth. Browning’s principal object was to illuminate various realms of human experience; to attain this, he converged […]

Birdman: A Review

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

It is not unusual that people fight against the whole world, fearing defeat and freaking out every time they see their worst fears in front of their eyes. But it gets all the more uncanny when the fight is against one’s own self, against a shadow that grows larger with the setting sun, overpowering one […]

Time Shi Gun: A Short Note

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

Where does love reside? ‘Shi Gun’ is a journey through time to timelessness, streching the limits of transformations, testing the bounds of bonding.Kim Ki Duk spans his narrative through an unusual love story where faces become masks and relationships signify a continuous act of deferance.It is not just a story where a paranoid woman decides […]

Bitter Moon: Some Comments

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

A movie about the limits of endurance and the limits of passion. Never thought i could ignore the presence of Hugh Grant in a movie starring Hugh Grant!Bitter Moon is an epic revelation of limits and what happens when one overreaches in relationship. A tale of a man , crippled by circumstances and his negotiation […]

The Equalizer: A very short note

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

“The Equalizer”More of a transporter kind of a movie but with just awesome background music. Credibility? Who the hell needs that anyways when you are up for a one man army sort of movie!The making is smart, camera very crisp, casting good enough and a decent though narrow plot.Good watch for a winter evening with […]

kids: A Personal Note

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

Not entirely sure of how I felt about this one. It is often difficult to act as an indifferent viewer, especially when one has a nine year old daughter, and a past full of reminiscence to burden the heart.making-wise, this is a faithful chunk of manhattan, or downtown America, or let’s say the world that […]

“Mary and Max”: A Personal Review

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

Director: Adam Elliot. What is the colour of loneliness? Muddy white i guess. And the smell of love? Old books and licorece of course.“Mary and Max” is a visual, emotional and spiritual treat that makes us revisit every disturbing question that had bugged us all our lives.Who is lonely?Aren’t we all?When every human on earth […]

Locke: A Short Review

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

Director: Steven KnightCast: Tom Hardy. A chunk of two hours, real time; a quasi-epistolary narrative; a brave innovation in storytelling: and we have what Steven Knight presents through the powerful acting of Tom Hardy.The film makes an invasive exploration of a man, who stands (rather drives) on a precarious cliff, on a crossword demanding the […]

The Unbearable Lightness of Being : A Review

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

Director: Philip KaufmanWriters: Milan Kundera (novel), Jean-Claude Carrière (screenplay)Stars: Daniel Day-Lewis, Juliette Binoche, Lena Olin How does one look at “The Unbearable Lightness of Being”? Is it about how human beings negotiate with choices in the midst of a totalitarian regime that increasingly ceases to grant any choices anymore? Or is it about how happiness […]


Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

The sun refuses to riseObscured by sultry rainMy blood runs darkened purpleThrough thyroxin deprived vein.A silent scream escapesThrough a half dead ventricleMy hands grope feverishly atA pack of popsicle.If only it was not tied downBy iron chains of rhymeI could sleep off this terrible dayWith hemlock soaked in lime…

The Return : A review

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

The Return(2003) Director: Andrey Zvyagintsev Writers: Vladimir Moiseenko, Aleksandr Novototskiy-Vlasov (as Aleksandr Novototskiy) Cast: Vladimir Garin, Ivan Dobronravov, Konstantin Lavronenko Sometimes absence is as palpably felt as presence, if not more. In “The Return”, the two young boys struggle through more than a decade of a fatherless childhood only to find out eventually that what they feel in […]


Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

A guilty hope, a lousy despair.What could have been a whale being caught in a muddy trailI bear the harpoon, I bear the wreathWaiting for the fatal strike,splattering blood,gathering spoils of priceless meat.Only it had been all alonga puffer poisoned,pretending woe.It hardly had been worth at allTo kill the wiggly finny foe…

Lars Von Trier: The Idiots

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

Spent an euphoric afternoon watching “The Idiots”. It is not just a film but an unbelievable dismantling of every accepted notion of screen performance. Von Trier consistently presents the idea of an outsider assimilating within the folds of a close knit structure, defying the codes of perspective by liquidating the very concept of a reference […]

Of Bulls and Bears

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

The wise men desert the promised land,Monsoon glooms and deferred showers,blackened diamond sparkles sharp,Debts pull down the Hellenic towers.A ship sunk low in Orient seasA leadened stack withdrawn from sightI wait with fretful bated breathAmidst bear baiting and bull fight.The sun towards the evening sinkspromising us a better dawnThe tides rise slow from lowest lowthe […]


Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

A knot in the gutTangled thread looseningserpent broodingin summer hibernation.The solstice, the solstice!and four hundred updates later,the crouching dragons are is not a cycleif the butterfly can’t becomea caterpillar.a toad breeds venomand yet the bard finds the stonethat adorns the crown.what shall we findbeyond the wait…a venomous spoilor a twinkling star!


Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

A locked door,Bolted safe from inside,away from prying eyes.Hands reaching out to each other.flesh meeting flesh,blood racing on flushed skin,muffled voices,whispered love notes,bated breathsweaty drops of contentment.A loud bang,not just a knock,startled bodies,hasty hands groping in the darkto resume pointless masquerades.Does it matter if one of them was himDoes it matter if both of them […]

তান ভৈরবী

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

তুই বলেছিলি বলে জলছবি এঁকেছি।ইছামতী থেকে গঙ্গার দূরত্বটুকু এক লাফে পার হতে পেরেছি,অনায়াস দ্রুততায়।আর তোর অভ্যস্ত আঙুলের ওঠানামায়অহল্যার মৃত্যু-ঘুম ভাঙ্গা চোখকাজল নেই বলে সঙ্কোচে জড়সড়,ঠিক তখন পার হয়ে এসেছিএক যুগের যবনিকাপাত রাত্রি।অনেক পার হওয়া সময়আর দূরত্বআজ লাল সুতোয় গিঁট বাঁধা থাক।তুই ছিঁড়ে দিস কোন এক শীতঘুম কাটা ভোরেঝলমলে ধারাল নক্ষত্রের আঘাতে।

Breaking The Waves: A Short Review

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Film Reviews

Life often makes us feel limited in our understanding of Good and Evil, Sin and Grace, and so does Von Trier. Watching “breaking the Waves” has that rippling effect on the mind where every hard bound idea of morality and ethics dismantles. The goodness of Bess becomes a screaming onslaught against the codes of artificial […]

On watching Samsara

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

Snowcapped hills & deep low chantsspinning bell of fortune tollsthe darkest crevice of earth explodesthrough the crater, fire rolls. A scary madman paints his facewith frenzied violence digs his clawsplattered blood stains wildest maska cursed soul, a passion raw. a thousand births a thousand deathsa thousand petty masqueradesa hasty slaughter, packaged neata thousand inmates’ dance […]

"The Cactus" by O Henry

The Cactus by O. Henry: A Story About The Irony of Fate

Posted 1 CommentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

For O. Henry, the short story was not just a literary act of communicating his artistic imagination, but also a vehicle to explore the extreme possibilities of such an endeavor. His stories are characterized by extreme unpredictability, transforming the genre into an active, pulsating living presence. “The Cactus” is no exception. The readers are , […]


The Sonnet in English: A Short Introduction

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

The “sonnet” is traced back to Francis Petrarch, whose sonnets (14th C Italian) were popular throughout western Europe. Early sonnets were less strict about form, and a sonnet could be slightly longer or shorter than the traditional 14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter. Because Petrarch’s sonnet sequence (over three hundred poems!) traced the course of […]

hard times

Hard Times : Role of Circus People

Posted 1 CommentPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

The primary essence of Charles Dickens’s art lies in his ability to transform the mundane visible reality to an altered quasi- symbolic environment, where the characters get elevated to a sphere of symbolic existence. Fundamentally dealing with the destructive forces of industrial revolution and the deliberate distortion of Utilitarianism to confine human Imagination, his novel […]

Paradise Lost: Significance of the Invocation

Posted 7 CommentsPosted in Literature Notes, Pubs

John Milton, in his attempt to create an epic presentation of practically the whole act of creation and transgression of Man, amalgamates Christian faith with tremendous aesthetic competency. Following the elementary classical conventions, he does frame his work within an apparent structural boundary, but eventually surpasses it by his imaginative faculty. In the Invocation itself, […]