paradise lost because of temptation

Paradise Lost: Complete Synopsis Of All Books (I-XII)

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John Milton’s “Paradise Lost” is a celebrated epic in English Literature. He transforms the Biblical account about the Fall of Man from Paradise into  rich, illustrious and timeless poetry. Paradise Lost: Book I [Invocation: Milton asks the muse to sing about man’s first disobedience, the Forbidden Fruit, his exile from paradise, his eventual redemption through […]

The Cook The Thief His Wife And Her Lover

The Cook, the Thief, His Wife & Her Lover (1989): A Review

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The Setting: Greenaway and the Tri-part Stage Peter Greenaway takes his camera through an adjacent tri-stage setup, the cold foggy outside, the warm vibrant kitchen and the richly decked up banquet hall. While the first one displays cruelty, abuse and bestiality shamelessly (fittingly complemented with a pack of hungry hounds and stench of rotten meat), […]

prospero and caliban

Caliban in Shakespeare’s “The Tempest”: A Critical Analysis

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In “The Tempest”, William Shakespeare draws the character of Caliban with dubious shades. Critics down the ages have responded differently to the portrayal of Caliban. While some have downright dismissed him as a lowly savage, others (especially the post colonial critics) have focused on Caliban as the subjugated victim of colonial domination. Nonetheless, the portrayal […]

Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller

Anne Sullivan: The Light and Music of Helen Keller’s Life

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Anne Sullivan’s contribution in the life of Helen Keller is immense and fathomless. In the autobiography of Helen “The Story of My Life” she reveals how Miss Sullivan has been the inspiration behind her otherwise dull and unprogressive life. Miss Sullivan herself was partially blind and had undergone surgery to regain vision at an early […]

Implied author as a key to understand multiplicity of text

Implied Author: Its Meaning and Relevance in Literary Criticism

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Implied Author: Wayne C Booth’s Unique Idea Wayne C Booth’s “The Rhetoric of Fiction” made a lasting impression on New Criticism’s efforts to make literary interpretation more “scientific” in its handling of the data one discovers in texts. Among the book’s important contributions was a distinction that Booth had made between narratives which come to […]

narrative voice

Narrative Voice: Interpretations and Critical Responses

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Meaning of Narrative Voice Voice, in context of narrative, may be defined as the phantom projection of a variable identity that articulates the speaker’s projection of ‘self’. Narrative being a rhetoric of representation. Capable of semiotic articulation, voice can be seen from various perspectives. In narratology, the basic question concerning voice is “who speaks”. It […]

Village in The Guide

The Guide: Narayan’s use of Irony and Humour

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Narayan’s Humour: An Integral Part of Narrative in The Guide R.K.Narayan’s conception of humour consists of close and realistic observation of life, precise juxtaposition of incongruities, deflation of illusions and, above all, sympathy rather than harsh satire. All these qualities are present in rich abundance in The Guide. “Humour writers”, says Narayan, ideally draw their […]

ironing board of alison

Alison in Osborne’s “Look Back in Anger”: A Critical Estimate

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John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger explores and exposes the world of the 1950s, drowned in the visible darkness of post-war disillusionment. The despair and frustration, the anger and anxiety is articulated through the character of Jimmy Porter, the central character in the play. However, it is through the parallel presentation of his wife Alison […]

dover beach at night

Dover Beach: Arnold as a Victorian Poet

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Nineteenth Century Hellenism, a romantic fascination for folk tales and legends, and a preference for solitary meditation in evocative surroundings render a distinctive note to Arnold’s poetry. “Dover Beach” is his attempt to meditate upon the redemptive elements in the laps of benevolent Nature. The description of the moon-blanch’d landscape in the opening lines suggest […]


Elizabeth in “Pride and Prejudice”: A Critical Evaluation

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Pride and Prejudice is brought vividly to life by a kaleidoscope of different and even contrasting characters, most of whom are identifiable from their speech patterns itself. Of course, not all characters are or need to be equally realized. The plot of Pride and Prejudice lies more in the psychological movements of the characters than […]

pilgrims on a wasteland

Enterprise: Some observations on Nissim Ezekiel’s Poem

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Nissim Ezekiel’s “Enterprise” is a powerful, multifaceted metaphor for a journey, an expedition, or a significant human enterprise, which a man dreams of, plans and concretizes but which ultimately ends in disillusionment. The poem becomes a testament of utopian ideas versus mundane matters of life woven into an apt metaphor of pilgrimage. From another perspective, […]

keats' odes

Keats’ Odes: Dominant Themes and Images in “Ode to a Nightingale”, “Ode on a Grecian Urn” and “To Autumn”

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The odes written by John Keats, on the level of superficial reading, may be seen as brilliant rendering of a scene, a season or a mood; the final perfection of English landscape poetry. His urge to establish such a balance is carried out through the trilogy of odes namely “Ode to Nightingale”, “Ode on a […]

Blake's concept of contraries

“Songs of Innocence” and “Songs of Experience”: Blake’s Concept of Contraries

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In his attempt to communicate his essential divine vision, William Blake created a poetic world where images are realized in their individual contexts and the contexts are realized in the unique Imagination of the poet. Blake’s philosophy asserts, more than anything else, the contrariety of systems with regard to human soul and other objects of […]

Loving in Truth by Sir Philip Sidney: A Critical Appreciation

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Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) Sir Philip Sidney, as a poet, is found opposed to all poetic conventions and affectations even when he adheres to the primary forms and generic qualities of contemporary English poetry. However, his sonnets are free from the artificiality of conventional poetic works and are distinctly sincere. As seen in his sonnet […]

Robert Browning’s “Porphyria’s Lover”: As a Dramatic Monologue

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The poetry of Robert Browning exemplifies a dominant and perhaps the most original tendency of the Victorian times: the craving for analysis and moral criticism. It is a deep rooted intellectual curiosity which merges into a systematic quest of truth. Browning’s principal object was to illuminate various realms of human experience; to attain this, he converged […]


Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

The sun refuses to riseObscured by sultry rainMy blood runs darkened purpleThrough thyroxin deprived vein.A silent scream escapesThrough a half dead ventricleMy hands grope feverishly atA pack of popsicle.If only it was not tied downBy iron chains of rhymeI could sleep off this terrible dayWith hemlock soaked in lime…


Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

A guilty hope, a lousy despair.What could have been a whale being caught in a muddy trailI bear the harpoon, I bear the wreathWaiting for the fatal strike,splattering blood,gathering spoils of priceless meat.Only it had been all alonga puffer poisoned,pretending woe.It hardly had been worth at allTo kill the wiggly finny foe…

Of Bulls and Bears

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The wise men desert the promised land,Monsoon glooms and deferred showers,blackened diamond sparkles sharp,Debts pull down the Hellenic towers.A ship sunk low in Orient seasA leadened stack withdrawn from sightI wait with fretful bated breathAmidst bear baiting and bull fight.The sun towards the evening sinkspromising us a better dawnThe tides rise slow from lowest lowthe […]


Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

A knot in the gutTangled thread looseningserpent broodingin summer hibernation.The solstice, the solstice!and four hundred updates later,the crouching dragons are is not a cycleif the butterfly can’t becomea caterpillar.a toad breeds venomand yet the bard finds the stonethat adorns the crown.what shall we findbeyond the wait…a venomous spoilor a twinkling star!


Posted Leave a commentPosted in Prose & Verse, Pubs

A locked door,Bolted safe from inside,away from prying eyes.Hands reaching out to each other.flesh meeting flesh,blood racing on flushed skin,muffled voices,whispered love notes,bated breathsweaty drops of contentment.A loud bang,not just a knock,startled bodies,hasty hands groping in the darkto resume pointless masquerades.Does it matter if one of them was himDoes it matter if both of them […]

তান ভৈরবী

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তুই বলেছিলি বলে জলছবি এঁকেছি।ইছামতী থেকে গঙ্গার দূরত্বটুকু এক লাফে পার হতে পেরেছি,অনায়াস দ্রুততায়।আর তোর অভ্যস্ত আঙুলের ওঠানামায়অহল্যার মৃত্যু-ঘুম ভাঙ্গা চোখকাজল নেই বলে সঙ্কোচে জড়সড়,ঠিক তখন পার হয়ে এসেছিএক যুগের যবনিকাপাত রাত্রি।অনেক পার হওয়া সময়আর দূরত্বআজ লাল সুতোয় গিঁট বাঁধা থাক।তুই ছিঁড়ে দিস কোন এক শীতঘুম কাটা ভোরেঝলমলে ধারাল নক্ষত্রের আঘাতে।

On watching Samsara

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Snowcapped hills & deep low chantsspinning bell of fortune tollsthe darkest crevice of earth explodesthrough the crater, fire rolls. A scary madman paints his facewith frenzied violence digs his clawsplattered blood stains wildest maska cursed soul, a passion raw. a thousand births a thousand deathsa thousand petty masqueradesa hasty slaughter, packaged neata thousand inmates’ dance […]

"The Cactus" by O Henry

The Cactus by O. Henry: A Story About The Irony of Fate

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For O. Henry, the short story was not just a literary act of communicating his artistic imagination, but also a vehicle to explore the extreme possibilities of such an endeavor. His stories are characterized by extreme unpredictability, transforming the genre into an active, pulsating living presence. “The Cactus” is no exception. The readers are , […]


The Sonnet in English: A Short Introduction

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The “sonnet” is traced back to Francis Petrarch, whose sonnets (14th C Italian) were popular throughout western Europe. Early sonnets were less strict about form, and a sonnet could be slightly longer or shorter than the traditional 14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter. Because Petrarch’s sonnet sequence (over three hundred poems!) traced the course of […]

hard times

Hard Times : Role of Circus People

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The primary essence of Charles Dickens’s art lies in his ability to transform the mundane visible reality to an altered quasi- symbolic environment, where the characters get elevated to a sphere of symbolic existence. Fundamentally dealing with the destructive forces of industrial revolution and the deliberate distortion of Utilitarianism to confine human Imagination, his novel […]

Paradise Lost: Significance of the Invocation

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John Milton, in his attempt to create an epic presentation of practically the whole act of creation and transgression of Man, amalgamates Christian faith with tremendous aesthetic competency. Following the elementary classical conventions, he does frame his work within an apparent structural boundary, but eventually surpasses it by his imaginative faculty. In the Invocation itself, […]