paradise lost because of temptation

Paradise Lost: Complete Synopsis Of All Books (I-XII)

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John Milton’s “Paradise Lost” is a celebrated epic in English Literature. He transforms the Biblical account about the Fall of Man from Paradise into  rich, illustrious and timeless poetry. Paradise Lost: Book I [Invocation: Milton asks the muse to sing about man’s first disobedience, the Forbidden Fruit, his exile from paradise, his eventual redemption through […]

sonnet of wyatt, sidney and spenser

Elizabethan Sonneteers: Contribution of Wyatt, Sidney, and Spenser

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Sonnet: Its Origin and Development in England Sonnet (originating from the Italian “sonnetto”) refers to a short poem of fourteen lines with a special technical pattern. It originated in Italy in the master hands of Dante and Petrarch, although the latter’s influence was more potent on the subsequent sonneteers of different regions, including England. The […]

Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller

Anne Sullivan: The Light and Music of Helen Keller’s Life

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Anne Sullivan’s contribution in the life of Helen Keller is immense and fathomless. In the autobiography of Helen “The Story of My Life” she reveals how Miss Sullivan has been the inspiration behind her otherwise dull and unprogressive life. Miss Sullivan herself was partially blind and had undergone surgery to regain vision at an early […]

sonnet 73

Analysing Sonnet 73: “That time of year thou mayst in me behold” by William Shakespeare

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Shakespeare’s Sonnet: Introduction Sonnets are invariably personal. Intense subjectivity is found to form a key character in sonnet writing. Regarding the personal character of Shakespeare’s sonnets, there is, no doubt, a host of controversies, yet their subjective notes are neither ignorable nor disputable. In some of them, Shakespeare’s personal moods and feelings are remarkably intense […]

Tagore: The living and the Dead

21st Century Indian Women Poets: An Introduction

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Recovering Memory: In search of an Indian Feminine poetics with reference to the 21st century poetry The comparative study of women’s poetry reveals many patterns of similarity in thought, themes, metaphors, and diction. It also reveals profound contradictions between the image of the poet as the “transcendent speaker of a unified culture” (Kaplan 70) and […]

shakespeare-women-speech

Five Memorable Speeches by Shakespeare’s Women

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William Shakespeare’s plays show remarkable portrayal of character when it comes to his women. It is often believed that his delineation of women characters surpass his portrayal of male characters. In both comedies and tragedies, Shakespeare’s women leave their mark through their action and speeches. Here are 5 of the most memorable speeches by Shakespeare’s […]

Implied author as a key to understand multiplicity of text

Implied Author: Its Meaning and Relevance in Literary Criticism

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Implied Author: Wayne C Booth’s Unique Idea Wayne C Booth’s “The Rhetoric of Fiction” made a lasting impression on New Criticism’s efforts to make literary interpretation more “scientific” in its handling of the data one discovers in texts. Among the book’s important contributions was a distinction that Booth had made between narratives which come to […]

narrative voice

Narrative Voice: Interpretations and Critical Responses

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Meaning of Narrative Voice Voice, in context of narrative, may be defined as the phantom projection of a variable identity that articulates the speaker’s projection of ‘self’. Narrative being a rhetoric of representation. Capable of semiotic articulation, voice can be seen from various perspectives. In narratology, the basic question concerning voice is “who speaks”. It […]

Village in The Guide

The Guide: Narayan’s use of Irony and Humour

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Narayan’s Humour: An Integral Part of Narrative in The Guide R.K.Narayan’s conception of humour consists of close and realistic observation of life, precise juxtaposition of incongruities, deflation of illusions and, above all, sympathy rather than harsh satire. All these qualities are present in rich abundance in The Guide. “Humour writers”, says Narayan, ideally draw their […]

pilgrims on a wasteland

Enterprise: Some observations on Nissim Ezekiel’s Poem

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Nissim Ezekiel’s “Enterprise” is a powerful, multifaceted metaphor for a journey, an expedition, or a significant human enterprise, which a man dreams of, plans and concretizes but which ultimately ends in disillusionment. The poem becomes a testament of utopian ideas versus mundane matters of life woven into an apt metaphor of pilgrimage. From another perspective, […]

keats' odes

Keats’ Odes: Dominant Themes and Images in “Ode to a Nightingale”, “Ode on a Grecian Urn” and “To Autumn”

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The odes written by John Keats, on the level of superficial reading, may be seen as brilliant rendering of a scene, a season or a mood; the final perfection of English landscape poetry. His urge to establish such a balance is carried out through the trilogy of odes namely “Ode to Nightingale”, “Ode on a […]

Blake's concept of contraries

“Songs of Innocence” and “Songs of Experience”: Blake’s Concept of Contraries

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In his attempt to communicate his essential divine vision, William Blake created a poetic world where images are realized in their individual contexts and the contexts are realized in the unique Imagination of the poet. Blake’s philosophy asserts, more than anything else, the contrariety of systems with regard to human soul and other objects of […]

Loving in Truth by Sir Philip Sidney: A Critical Appreciation

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Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) Sir Philip Sidney, as a poet, is found opposed to all poetic conventions and affectations even when he adheres to the primary forms and generic qualities of contemporary English poetry. However, his sonnets are free from the artificiality of conventional poetic works and are distinctly sincere. As seen in his sonnet […]

Robert Browning’s “Porphyria’s Lover”: As a Dramatic Monologue

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The poetry of Robert Browning exemplifies a dominant and perhaps the most original tendency of the Victorian times: the craving for analysis and moral criticism. It is a deep rooted intellectual curiosity which merges into a systematic quest of truth. Browning’s principal object was to illuminate various realms of human experience; to attain this, he converged […]

"The Cactus" by O Henry

The Cactus by O. Henry: A Story About The Irony of Fate

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For O. Henry, the short story was not just a literary act of communicating his artistic imagination, but also a vehicle to explore the extreme possibilities of such an endeavor. His stories are characterized by extreme unpredictability, transforming the genre into an active, pulsating living presence. “The Cactus” is no exception. The readers are , […]

sonnet

The Sonnet in English: A Short Introduction

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The “sonnet” is traced back to Francis Petrarch, whose sonnets (14th C Italian) were popular throughout western Europe. Early sonnets were less strict about form, and a sonnet could be slightly longer or shorter than the traditional 14 lines of rhymed iambic pentameter. Because Petrarch’s sonnet sequence (over three hundred poems!) traced the course of […]

hard times

Hard Times : Role of Circus People

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The primary essence of Charles Dickens’s art lies in his ability to transform the mundane visible reality to an altered quasi- symbolic environment, where the characters get elevated to a sphere of symbolic existence. Fundamentally dealing with the destructive forces of industrial revolution and the deliberate distortion of Utilitarianism to confine human Imagination, his novel […]

Paradise Lost: Significance of the Invocation

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John Milton, in his attempt to create an epic presentation of practically the whole act of creation and transgression of Man, amalgamates Christian faith with tremendous aesthetic competency. Following the elementary classical conventions, he does frame his work within an apparent structural boundary, but eventually surpasses it by his imaginative faculty. In the Invocation itself, […]